Ph.D. University of Rochester (1973)B.A. Union College (1966)
Murphy Institute of Political Economy
- Political Philosophy
- Philosophy of Law
- History of Political Theory
- “Natural Rights,” Arguments for Liberty, ed. Aaron Powell (Washington, D.C: Cato Institute, 2017), 30-59.
- "John Locke's Defense of Commercial Society," in Heath and Kaldis, Wealth, Commerce, and Philosophy (Chicago 2017)
- "Elbow Room for Self-Defense," Social Philosophy and Policy (2016)
- "Elbow Room for Rights," Oxford Studies in Political Philosophy, vol.1, no.1 (2015), 194-221.
- "Robert Nozick's Political Philosophy," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (2014).
- "Locke," Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy, ed. by F. D'Agostino and G. Gaus, (London: Routledge, 2012) 71-8.
- “Lysander Spooner: Nineteenth Century America’s Last Natural Rights Theorist,” Social Philosophy and Policy, v.29 no.2 (2012), 139-176.
- “Friedrich Hayek on the Nature of Social Order and Law,” in Political Philosophy in the Twentieth Century, ed. C. Zuckert, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011) 129-141.
- “Nozickan Arguments for the More-Than-Minimal State,” in Cambridge Companion to Anarchy, State and Utopia, ed. R. Bader and J. Meadowcroft (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011) 89-115.
- “The Natural Right of Property,” Social Philosophy and Policy, v.27 no.1 (Winter 2010), 53-79.
- “What is Left in Left-Libertarianism?,” in Hillel Steiner and the Anatomy of Justice, ed. Steve DeWijze, Mathew H. Kramer, and Ian Carter (London: Routledge, 2009), 101-131.
- “Individualism and Libertarian Rights,” in Contemporary Debates in Political Philosophy, edited by John Christman and Thomas Cristiano (Oxford: Blackwell, 2009), 121-136.
- “Hayek on Justice and the Order of Actions,” in Cambridge Companion to Hayek, ed. E. Feser (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006) 259-286.
- “Non-Absolute Rights and Libertarian Taxation,” Social Philosophy and Policy, v.23 no.2, (Summer 2006), 109-141.
- “Prerogatives, Restrictions, and Rights,” Social Philosophy and Policy, v. 22 no.1 (Winter 2005), 357-393.
- "Libertarianism and Classical Liberalism: The Liberty Tradition" (with Gerald Gaus), A Handbook of Political Theory, ed. G. Gaus and C. Kukathus (London: Routledge, 2004) pp. 115-130.
- "The State of Nature Has a Law of Nature to Govern It," in Individual Rights Reconsidered, T.R.Machan, ed. (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 2001) pp.87-112.
- "Equality, Benevolence, and Responsiveness to Agent-Relative Value," Social Philosophy and Policy, vol.16 no.1 (Winter 2002) pp.314-341.
- "Self-Ownership, Marxism, and Egalitarianism: Part I. Challenges to Historical Entitlement," Politics, Philosophy, and Economics, vol.1 no.1 (February 2002) pp.119-146.
- "Self-Ownership, Marxism, and Egalitarianism: Part II. Challenges to the Self-Ownership Thesis," Politics, Philosophy, and Economics, vol.1 no.2 (June 2002) pp.237-276.
- "Self-Ownership, Taxation, and Democracy: A Philosophical-Constitutional Perspective," in Politics, Taxation, and the Rule of Law D. Racheter, ed. (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002) pp.9-32.
- "Problematic Arguments in Randian Ethics," Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, vol.5 no. 1 (Fall 2003) pp.1-66.
- "In Defense of the Jurisdiction Theory of Rights," The Journal of Ethics, vol. 4 (2000), pp. 71-98.
- "In Defense of Individualism," Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (1999), 87-115.
- "The Alienability of Lockean Natural Rights" in Persons and Their Bodies, ed. M.J. Cherry ( Kluwer, 1999), 143-176.
- "Deontic Restrictions Are Not Agent-Relative Restrictions," in Social Philosophy and Policy (1998), 60-83.
- "Right-Wing Liberalism, Left-Wing Liberalism, and the Self-Ownership Proviso" in Liberal Institutions, Economic Constitutional rights, and the Role of Organizations, ed. Karl-Heinz Ladeur (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1997), 9-29.